Các loại súp thông dụng

Các loại súp được phân loại, và chế biến theo những đặt tính sau:

Broth ( hot or cold), clear or pureed (Nước trong, nóng hoặc lạnh, trong hoặc xay nhuyển).
Khi dùng các thành phần cho garnish (có tác dụng trang trí thêm) nên:
· Nên tiêu biểu cho loại súp đó
· Nên không nhiều hơn 10%
· Phải được cắt nhỏ để khách có thể dùng muỗn ăn được.
· Rau cải trong súp (nếu có) phải không vượt quá 50% (ngoại trừ Minestrone và Borsch).
Chúng ta có thể phân loại theo công theo các công thức sau:

CLEAR SOUP = CLARIFIED BEEF, VEAL OR POULTRY + GARNISH (usually julienne cuts) Tiêu biểu cho loại này là consommé.

PUREED SOUP = PUREED (STOCK+VEGETABLE) + GARNISH (usually crouton) Soup này được xay nhuyển.

VELOUTÉ = STOCK (vegetable or poultry) + ROUX + eggyolk or cream + garnish (usually crouton)

BISQUE = STRAINED (Shellfish thickened with ground CREAM .

SOUP = MILK + BECHAMEL +(vegetable, poultry or fish or any velouté with cream) + GARNISH (cream) rice or roux) + CREAM + GARNISH.

BROTH = STOCK + VEGETABLE, MEAT or FISH + GARNISH (Như Minestrone, hoặc French onion soup).

COLD SOUP = VARIATIONS OF THE ABOVE CLASSES + garnish (Ví dụ: Gaspacho, cream of avocado…).

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CLEAR SOUPS .

BEEF CONSOMMÉ:

Ingredients:
Brown stock                               1 litter      5litter
Shin of beef, minced                 200gr       1 kg
Egg white                                    1no            3nos
Mire poix                                     100gr        250gr
Bouquet garni                             1                 1
Pepper corn                                 3                 3
Salt to taste
Tomatoes, ripe (optional)         50gr           100gr
Onion, brown, unpeeled            half            4 halves.

Consomme-Oxtail

Method:
1/. In suitable saucepan. Mix the beef, white of eggs, peppercorn, satl and mirepoix with 100ml of cold stock or cold water.
2/. Gradually add cold stock and mix well.
3/. Char the cut surface of the onion on top of the stove or grill plate and add it and the tomatoes to improve the color of the consomme.
4/. Set to cook over a moderate heat, stirring until it reaches a simmer. Leave to cook for 2 hours. Do not at any stage allow the mixture to boil or attempt to stir once it has started to simmer.
5/. Wring out a clean cotton cloth in cold water and use it to line a conical strainer. Carefully strain off the consomme into a clean bowl without disturbing the clarification.
6/. Skim off any fat. Correct the seasoning.
7/. Reheat the consomme which must be served very hot (95 C degree), and garnish according to the description on the menu.

CHICKEN CONSOMME:

This is prepared in the same way as beef consomme, using chicken stock with the additional chicken carcases, necks or trimmings that should be lightly browned in the oven before adding to the stock. Use one carcase cut up for 1 litter; the equivalent of three carcases for 5 litter.

CONSOMME BRUNOISE

Beef consomme. Garnish with a brunoise of carrot, leek, celery, turnip and onion. Blanch the vegetables. Drain and allow 10g per portion.

CONSOMME CELESTINE

Beef or chicken consomme. Garnish with thin savory pancake containing chervil. Cut the pancake in half and then into thin strips. Allow about half a 15cm pancake per portion.

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PUREE SOUPS .

PUREE OF CARROT

Ingredients:
White stock                       1L               5L
Carrot                                 400gr        2kg
Onion                                  100gr        500gr
Butter                                  50gr          200gr
Thyme                                 sprig          sprig
Salt to taste
Sugar                                  2g                10g
Rice                                     50gr           300gr
Butter, for finishing         20gr           100gr.

Carrot Cream Soup Diet Food. Studio Photo
Carrot Cream Soup Diet Food. Studio Photo

Method:
1/. Cut the carrots and onions as for a mirepoix and sweat them in butter without browning.
2/. Add the other ingredients and simmer for about 45 minutes or until the vegetables are well cooked.
3/. Pass the soup through a soup mill or blender, or rub it through a sieve to obtain a smooth puree.
4/. Bring to simmer for 10 minutes and skim off the scum.
5/. Correct the seasoning, and correct the consistency with the addition of stock or modified starch blended with cold water.
6/. Just prior to serving, add the butter by stirring it in vigorously.

PEA SOUP

Ingredients:
White stock                      1L             5L
Green split peas              200gr       1kg
Bacon bones, smoked    50gr         200gr
Carrot                                50gr         200gr
Onions                              50gr          200gr
Bouquet garni                  1                1
Salt to taste
Butter, for finishing       20gr          50gr.

pea-soup
Method:
1/. Look over the peas to see that they are clean. Wash if necessary.
2/. In a suitable saucepan put the peas and stock on to cook. Bring to boil and skim.
3/. Add the onion, carrot, bouquet garni, bones and salt. Cook gently until the peas begin to break up, about 1 ½ hours.
4/. Pass the soup through a soup mill or blender and re-boil in a clean saucepan.
5/. Correct the consistency and seasoning. Keep very hot.
6/. Just prior to serving, add the soft butter by stirring vigorously.

Note:
*/. Yellow split peas and lentils are prepared in the same way as green split peas described above.
*/. Dried peas, lentils etc, may be soaked overnight in cold water or stock and the cooking time halves.

PUMPKIN SOUP

Ingredient:                   4portions     10portions
Pumpkin                          800gr           2kg
Onions, chopped            150gr            375gr
Garlic                                5gr                15gr
Butter                                100gr           250gr
Chicken stock                  500ml          1.25liter
Apple                                 150gr            375gr
Ginger                               3gr                 8gr
Nutmeg                             2g                  5g
Salt and pepper to taste
Cream                               80ml              200ml
Chives/parsley, chopped 5g                 15gr.

Pumpkin-Soup
Method:
1/. Sweat the onions and garlic in butter without coloring, add the ginger and nutmeg and cook for 1 minute. Add the pumpkin and stock and bring to boil, skim. Simmer until the pumpkin is soft.
2/. Puree all the ingredients using a food processor. Pass the soup through a strainer, reheat and adjust seasoning and consistency. Serve hot with a thread of cream and chopped chives or parsley.
Note: Từ công thức này, chúng ta có thể chế biến ra nhiều kiểu khác nhau bằng cách thay: Cam hoặc cà rốt thay cho Táo, hay bột cà ri hoặc saffron thay vì nutmeg hoặc gừng.

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VELOUTE SOUPS .

MUSHROOM SOUP.

Ingredient:               1liter               5liter
Butter                        50ml               250ml
Flour veloute            50g                 250g
Chicken stock           1.2L                 5.5L
Mushroom, open grade 250g        2.2kg
Egg yolks                   2                      8 (For liaison)
Cream                        100ml             500ml (For liaison).

mushroom soup

Method:
1/. Prepare a fawn roux and add the chicken stock to make a smooth veloute.
2/. Wash and drain the mushrooms. Chop them and add to the veloute.
3/. Simmer for 30-45 minutes. Skim as necessary.
4/. Pass through a soup mill or blender.
5/. Pass through a conical strainer into a clean saucepan.
6/. Bring to the boil and pour onto the mixture of well-beaten egg yolks and cream, stirring constantly.
7/. Return the soup to the saucepan. Heat to serving temperature. Do not boil or the soup will curdle.

CHICKEN SOUP
Ingredients:                 1L                      5L
Onions, sliced                 100g                  500g
Butter                               50g                    250g
Flour veloute                   50g                    250g
Chicken stock                  1.2L                   5.5L
Egg yolks                          2                         8 (For liaison)
Cream                               100ml                500ml (For liaison)
Cooked chicken, diced  50g                      250g.

chicken soup

Method:
1/. Heat the butter in a saucepan and sweat the onions.
2/. Add the flour and make a fawn roux.
3/. Add the chicken stock and allow the veloute to cook for 30 minutes.
4/. Mix the egg yolks and cream and pour the veloute onto this liaison.
5/. Pass the soup through a conical strainer into a clean saucepan.
6/. Heat to serving temperature but do not boil or the soup will curdle.
The soup may be finished with cream alone; it will not curdle.

 

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BROTHS .

MINESTRONE
Ingredients:                        1L              5L
Bacon pieces (or streaky bacon)
Cut into botons                      25gr          100gr
Onions (paysanne)                25g            150g
Carrots, cut into thin slices (paysanne) 25gr 250gr
Celery (paysanne)                  15g            100gr
Zucchini (paysanne)              25gr          150gr
Potatoes (paysanne)               25gr          150gr
Haricot beans, soaked overnight 10gr   50gr
Rice                                            10g             50g
Spaghetti                                   10g             50g
Macaroni                                   10gr           50gr
Garlic                                          1clove        3 cloves
Cabbage, shredded                  15gr            100gr
Peas                                            15gr             100gr
Tomato concasse                     20gr             150gr
White stock                               1.2L              5.5L
Salt, pepper, coriander to taste
Cheese (parmesan) for garnish.

minestrone-soup

Method:
1/. Sautee the bacon in a large saucepan.
2/. Add the vegetables cut into paysanne and allow them to sweat with a little extra butter (or olive oil) if necessary.
3/. Add the stock, haricot beans and rice and set to simmer. Season lightly.
4/. After half an hour, add the spaghetti ang macaroni. (or add cooked pasta ala minute)
5/. Twenty minutes later, add the cabbage, zucchini and peas, and continue to cook for 15 minutes.
6/. Add the tomatoes and garlic, and cook for a further 10 minutes.
7/. Correct the seasoning and pour into hot serving dishes.
8/. Serve grated hard cheese separately.

Note: Trong súp này, ta có thể cho thêm vào tomato puree, hoặc marjoram, basil.

FRENCH ONION SOUP
Ingredients:                            1L              5L
Butter                                          30g             130g
Onions, finely sliced                 250g           1.5kg
Flour                                            10gr            50gr
Brown stock                                1L               5L
Bread stick, cut into
flutes and toasted                      1-2 per serve
Cheese (gruyere and parmesan) grated   80g     400g;

french onion soup

Method:
1/. Melt the butter in a saucepan and add the onions. Allow to sautee to a golden brown without any burnt pieces.
2/. Add the flour and cook to fawn roux.
3/. Add the stock and simmer for 20minutes.
4/. Skim and correct seasoning.
5/. Portion into serving dishes or individual earthenware casseroles.
6/. Float one or two toasted flutes on each portion and sprinkle with cheese.
7/. Gratinate in a very hot oven or under the salamander and serve at once.

 

 

BOUILLABAISSE
Ingredients:                                        1L             5L
Fish (john Dory, whiting, Gurnard,
Rock lobster, Nannygai, Ling,
Flouder, Mussels)                                 500gr       2.5kg
Oil                                                             50ml        200ml
Onions                                                     50g           250g
White wine                                             250ml       1.3L
Fish stock                                                800ml      4L
Salt                                                           2g               10g
Spice sachet                                            1                  3
Cloves                                                      2                  10
Bay leaves                                                1                  2
Thyme                                                      sprig           sprigs
Parsley stalks                                          3                  10
Saffron trace to season
Fennel powder (or fresh) trace to season
Tomato concasse                                   100g            500gr.

bouillabaisse

Method:
1/. Heat the oil in a good-sized saucepan. Add the onions and allow to sweat.
2/. Add the white wine, stock, and all the herbs and spices. Simmer for 15-20 minutes to make a court-bouillon.
3/. Remove the spices.
4/. Add the fish cut into pieces and poach for 5-7 minutes.
5/. Add the tomatoes and allow to simmer for a further 4 mintes. Serve with toasted bread sticks.
Note: This soup must be served very hot; the fish must not be overcooked.
Traditionally this is served as a fish stew.

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CREAM SOUPS .

CREAM OF CELERY SOUP
Ingredients:                      1L           5L
Celery, white stalks             400g      2kg
White stock                           200ml    1L
Buter                                      15g          60g
Bchamel sauce                     600ml    3L (binding
Consistency)
Cream                                    50ml        300ml.

CREAM OF CELERY SOUP
Method:
1/. Wash the celery and cut into dice. Sweat in butter without taking color.
2/. Add the stock. Season and cook until the celery is tender, about 20 minutes. Remove some of the celery with a perforated spoon and set aside for garnish.
3/. Pass the celery through a soup mill or blender and add to the bechamel sauce.
4/. Heat without boiling. Correct the seasoning and consistency. Strain through a fine strainer into a clean saucepan.
5/. Ass cream and garnish. Heat soup to serving temperature.

CREAM OF OYSTER SOUP
Ingredients:                                 1L                    5L
Fish stock (good flavor)               400ml             2.5L
Bechamel
Butter                                               50g                  250g
Flour                                                 50g                  250g
Milk                                                  600ml             2L
Oysters, loose (3-4 per serve)     15-20               100
Cream                                               50ml                200ml.

New England Oyster Stew
Method:
1/. Prepare a white roux and add milk according to recipe to make a smooth thick bechamel sauce.
2/. Add the fish stock slowly to avoid lumps.
3/. Correct the seasoning and consistency. Add cream and oysters.
4/. Heat thoroughly and serve. Do not boil.
Notes:
1/. For a large party, it is preferable to portion the oysters into serving dishes then add the soup to assist portion control. For this procedure, warm the oysters in a little fish stock just before service. Take care to observe safe temperatures.
2/. The liquid from the loose oysters should be used as part of the stock.

 

CREAM OF ONION SOUP
Substitute 300gr of onions for celery in recipe of CREAM OF CELERY SOUP (above) to make 1 liter.

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BISQUES .

ROCK LOBSTER BISQUE
Ingredients:                               1L                       5L
Rock lobster shells, head            2-3                     2.5-3kg
White wine                                    200ml               750ml
Fish stock                                       900ml              4.5ml
Butter 80g 400g
Onions  (cut into mirepoix)       30gr                   150gr
Carrot (cut into mirepoix)         50g                     250g
Celery (cut into mirepoix)          50g                    250g
Fennel, fresh (cut into mirepoix)50gr                250gr
Paprika trace                                       2g
Flour                                                6g                      300g
Tomato puree                                 40g                   200g
Cream                                              100ml               300ml
Salt and pepper to taste
Brandy                                             25ml                  100ml.

ROCK LOBSTER BISQUE
Method:
1/. In a large sauce pan, heat the oil, add the shells and head, sauté until the color turned red and get fragrance. Add half brandy to flambé. Add in tomatoes puree, keep sauteing a few minutes (in this process, you can use fresh, chopped tomatoes add in and sauteé to get coloring and flavor).
2/. Add the white wine and stock, transfer to the soup pot, simmer gently for 10 minutes.
3/. In another saucepan, melt the butter and lightly fry the mirepoix and paprika.
4/. Cool slightly and add the flour to make a fawn roux.
5/. Add the vegetable and roux mixture to the soup pot, simmer for 30 to 60 minutes. Stir frequently, make sure not burnt.
6/. Strain. Add the cream, white pepper and very little salt.
7/. Bring to simmer and add the rest of brandy.
8/. Pour into hot serving dishes and serve.

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COLD SOUPS .

AVOCADO SOUP
Ingredients:                            2 portions     20 portions
Avocado pears, ripe                  1                      10
Chicken stock  (or vegetable stock) 350ml  3.5L
Rosemary, fresh 3blades small piece
Pure cream                                 60ml               600ml
Cayenne pepper trace               1g
Lemon juice                                2ml                 20ml
Onion salt to season
Garlic, finely crushed to season 2-3 cloves.

Chilled Avocado soup
Chilled Avocado soup

Method:
1/. Boil the chicken stock (or vegetable stock) with the rosemary. Reduce by one-third to make a strong stock. Allow to cool.
2/. Score the avocado around the poles, break in half and remove the stone.
3/. Scoop out all the flesh from the skin into a basin.
4/. Mash the flesh to a paste and gradually add the cold stock. Mix well to a smooth consistency.
5/. Add 90% of the cream, the cayenne, lemon juice, salt and garlic. Check the seasoning and adjust if necessary.
6/. Chill thoroughly.
7/. Serve in chilled dishes, using the remaining cream to make a swirl on each serve.

GAZPACHO
Ingredients:                      1L
Cucumber                             2
Tomato                                  500g
Onion                                     100g
Garlic                                     20gr
Vegetable stock, cold          250ml
Olive oil                                 25ml
Red capsicum                       80g
Green capsicum                   80g
Bread                                     4 slices
Vinegar                                  15ml
Chervil to taste.

GAZPACHO
Method:
1/. Peel one cucumber and seed it, wash and dry the tomatoes, peel the onion and garlic. Pass these through a sieve or blender to obtain a liquid puree.
2/. Add the stock and season, then mix in half the olive oil. Keep in refrigerator to chill (very cold)
3/. Peel the second cucumber and seed it. Cut open the capsicum and remove seeds. Cut capsicum and cucumber into fine brunoise; keep aside for garnish.
4/. Cut the bread into small croutons and shallow-fry in the remaining oil.
5/. Serve the puree very cold, sprinkled with the garnish and croutons

VICHYSSOISE
Ingredients:                                  1L
Butter 20g
Leeks, white part only, mirepoix 100g
Onions, mirepoix                            100g
Chicken stock                                   1L
Potatoes, sliced                                250g
Cream                                                100ml
Chives, chopped for garnish.

vichyssoise
Method:
1/. Melt the butter in a deep saucepan and sweat the leeks and onions.
2/. Add the chicken stock. Bring to boil and skim.
3/. Add the potatoes and a little salt. Simmer until the vegetables are tender.
4/. Pass through a blender or fine sieve, then strain through a fine strainer.
5/. Bring to the boil (to sterilize) and allow to cool.
6/. Add cream to correct the consistency.
7/. Chill well and correct the seasoning.
8/. Serve garnished with chopped chives.

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